Cesar Franck and the Rise of French Chamber Music

Cesar Franck and the Rise of French Chamber Music

I wrote this paper in graduate school. I recall being highly motivated by the subject, reading and researching as much for my own enjoyment as for this paper. It is dated June 1992, and received an A.

Chamber music had never been an integral part of French music until the end of the nineteenth century.  There were some notable works such as the trios and sonatas by Rameau, Couperin, and Leclair, but never was any emphasis placed on the chamber medium.  The events and individuals who led to the rise of chamber music in France at the end of the nineteenth century shall be the subject of this paper.

A reasonable figure with which to begin such a study would be Cesar Franck.  Because he is often hailed as the father of modern French chamber music, his contribution and influence shall be a point at which to begin such a discussion.  This paper, however, shall delve a generation beyond Franck to examine his influences, and to gain a better understanding of what may have led to his interest in chamber music.

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When Franck was 13, he began studying composition privately with the Czech-born French composer/theorist Antione Reicha (1770-1836).  Reicha as composer is best remembered for his chamber music.  He was friends with Haydn and Beethoven, and studied with Salieri and Albrechtsberger.  Among his better known students were Baillot, Habeneck, Rode, Berlioz, Liszt, and Franck.

As a professor at the Conservatoire, Reicha’s relationship with his colleagues was a cool one because of his progressive thinking.  This rebellious side must have also appealed to the young Franck.  A young composer such as Franck surely must have been impressed by the credentials of his teacher, not to mention the company with whom he associated.

Other than Reicha, the Conservatoire remained extremely traditional in its stress of classical models of composition.  This was an ambiguous arena in which Franck was obliged to study the proper Austro-German models, yet follow the guidance of a man determined to make new innovations.  This is nearly identical to the evetual reputation Franck achieved in which he employed progressive ideas within conventional models.

When Franck was eighteen, he composed the Trio in F-Sharp Minor (1840).  This piece is important because it demonstrates a young Cesar Franck composing chamber music in a cyclical form, inspired perhaps by Beethoven’s Sonata pathétique or Schubert’s Wander Fantasie, both of which contained cyclical composition.  This method of composition C in which a theme recurs or is transformed in two or more movements of a piece C is a path Franck chose to take repeatedly until the end of his life.

Franck’s first trio was followed with three more trios over the next two years.  Curiously, however, Franck did not engage himself in the composition of any more chamber music for more than thirty years.  This is perhaps due to his performing career and his 1860 appointment as organist of the church of Sainte-Clotilde (where he had already been choir-master for two years).  During these years, Franck delighted in composition for organ and piano, while also composing for various church medium such as motets, oratorios, and other smaller works.

Another figure whose importance should neither be overlooked nor overestimated is Charles Gounod (1818-1893).  A friend of Franck, Gounod is not remembered as a chamber music composer, but did contribute six chamber works to the repertory after the war of 1870.  Gounod’s stature as it  relates to music of France in general, however, comes from his influence over most French composers of the late nineteenth century.  Such composers included Bizet, Fauré, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, Ravel, and even the members of Les Six.  Gounod’s influence over French musicians of the late nineteenth century was great, but his importance as a chamber music composer was not.  He composed a quartet which, though it proposed no new ideas, had a certain degree of appeal.  His Petite Symphonie, written for the Société de Musique de Chambre pour Instruments à Vent represents Gounod at his best.  It was first performed in 1885.

Though Franck’s influence cannot be exaggerated, there were others before him who helped pave the way toward an easier acceptance of modern chamber music in France.  One of these was Anglo-French composer Georges Onslow (1783-1852).  Largely forgotten, he was one of the few composers of his time who sought to end the German dominance of chamber music, writing thirty-four piano quintets and thirty-six quartets.  Also a student of Reicha, Onslow played the cello and studied the classics.  He developed an affinity for chamber music at a young age, and devoted himself to composing for small groups at a time when most composers were preoccupied with a theatrical works.  His ability as a composer was somewhat limited, or as one writer claims, “He was a gifted amateur, to whom thanks are due for his pioneer work in chamber music.”[1]

Before 1870, a number of chamber music ensembles began appearing in France.  For the most part, these ensembles existed primarily as an attempt to gain acceptance for the medium.  The first significant ensemble, the Société de Musique de Chambre, founded in 1834, endured until just after the war C last appearing in 1872.  Another group, founded by Pierre Chevillard in 1850, sought to acquaint the public with the late Beethoven quartets.

One figure who played a dual role in the rise of French Chamber music, as performer and composer, was Edouard Lalo (1823-1892).  Lalo C French, but of Spanish descent C was violist in the Armingaud Quartet, formed by Jules Armingaud in 1855.  It was for this group that Lalo wrote three trios, though in the style of the traditional German school of Schumann and Weber.  He abhorred the new trends of Germany, and especially the domination of German music in France.  He joined Saint-Saëns, Bizet, and Chabrier in opposing who they believed represented in the worst in modern German music: Richard Wagner.

As the Armingaud Quartet took shape, so did the career of a young composer.  Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921) had a musical upbringing that involved studies of the classic models, and this allowed him to write comfortably in the chamber music medium.  Though he wrote his first chamber work at age 7, his first mature attempt at this medium was in 1855 with his Quintette for piano and string quartet.  It was a classically written work, perhaps categorized as a student – or at least early – work.  His next significant chamber work was the Trio, No. 1 op. 18 composed in 1863.  This is a light-hearted and youthful work probably inspired during a trip in the Pyrenees.

Students at the École Polytechnique formed La Trompette in 1860.  This is one of many organizations that began to appear at this time.  Most of their programs included performances of string quartets.  This gave the growing number of quartets in France an opportunity to perform, and an avenue by which the public could become comfortable with the idea of modern chamber music.

In 1863, Albert Ferrand founded the Société des Quatuors Français.  The intent of this group was to perform works by French composers.  Though the existence of such a group was important, they continually faced the problem of finding quality music to add to their repertory.

Saint-Saëns, now a respected composer in the community, played a major role in the formation of the Société Nationale de Musique, but the war of 1870 interrupted his interest in the project.  Soon after the outbreak of the war, he took refuge in London where he found Gounod and other compatriots in exile.  While in London, Saint-Saëns made his first appearance at an informal concert of the Musical Union, directed by John Ellis.  These concerts were a vehicle by which the cause of chamber music was furthered.  After the war had ended, Saint-Saëns returned to Paris.

The effect of the war of 1870 on Saint-Saëns is readily seen in his Sonata for cello, No. 1, Op. 32 (1872).  Gone are the light-hearted moments of his youthful composition.  The spirit of this piece, written in the key (by now associated with fate or tragedy) of C minor, is now one of “grave and earnest.”[2] It was at this time that he also wrote another work for cello and piano, Berceuse, Op. 38 (1871).

By 1870 Franck had already achieved a considerable amount of notoriety as a distinguished performer.  He had been the organist at Sainte-Clotilde since 1860, and was gaining recognition for his sacred works as well as his works for piano and organ.  He was soon to be appointed organ professor at the Conservatoire, a position which allowed him to exert even more influence over the young composers in France at this time, many of whom had already studied with him before his appointment.

The list of Franck’s pupils from 1870 until his death reads almost as a who’s?who of Paris in the late nineteenth century.  It is through Franck’s influence C and of the rejection of the dominance of German music in France C that these young composers came to adopt an admiration for chamber music with a national identity of their own.

Without hesitation, the first of Franck’s pupils who should be credited with aiding the rebirth of French chamber music at this time is Alexis de Castillon (1838-1873).  Though Castillon died at an age when his music had just started to mature, his contribution to the medium is nonetheless significant.  Aside from the few composers aforementioned, Castillon was directing his efforts in a direction other than what was normal at this time.

The first chamber work of Castillon’s was his Piano Quintet (1863-64).  This is significant when evaluating Franck’s influence over Castillon.  The writing of this work predates Castillon’s association with Franck by nearly five years.  Though it is an amateur composition, it does represent the first of four chamber works written before his introduction to Franck.

Once Castillon’s friend, Henri Duparc (1848-1933), convinced him to renounce his studentship at the Conservatoire (and his studies with Massé), he began private studies with Franck before 1870.  His output of chamber music during this year represented some of his finest yet: a Piano Quintet, Piano Quartet, String Quartet, Trio, and a Violin Sonata.  It was also in this year that the Schumann Society introduced his quintet.

Castillon was a contributing source for the rise of chamber music at this place and time, but his influence (beyond the actua*chamber music) was probably minimal.  This is because he was an admirer of the Austro-Germanic tradition, and strove to follow the musical language of his favorite composers C namely Schumann. (more, see p128 Davies)

A friend of Castillon, Henri Duparc, is best remembered for his songs, but he did contribute some early chamber works worth mentioning.  His Cello Sonata (1867) showed a certain degree of skill at a time when chamber music was still not widely accepted in France.  He is the individual who first took d’Indy and Chabrier to Bayreuth to hear the music of Wagner.  Though these two composers were easily more Wagnerian than Duparc, it was his excitement for the new sounds in Germany that led him to be labeled a Wagnerite.

The formation of the Société Nationale de Musique in 1871 is seen as a turning point in the steady rise in chamber music in France in the last third of the nineteenth century.  The driving forces behind the Société were Romaine Bussine C a vocal teacher at the conservatoire, Saint-Saëns C who became Vice-President, and Castillon, who served as secretary.  Also initially active in the project were Fauré, Duparc, Lalo, Massenet, Guiraud, Dubois, and Franck.  The motto adopted was Ars Gallica.  Their first order of business was to draft a constitution, a task entrusted the Castillon.

Castillon belonged to the sect of the Société that wanted to encourage French music only, perhaps most strongly supported by Saint-Saëns.  The other force in the group, led by d’Indy, had become quite enthusiastic about the music of Wagner starting with the concerts of Wagner’s music at the Théâtre des Italians in 1860.  Though this group did not control the decision making of the Société initially, it did eventually rise to authority in the 1880’s.

The first concert of the Société was held just nine months after its formation, in November 1871.  The first program consisted of a Franck trio.  Almost all of Franck’s subsequent major chamber works saw their debut through the Société.  The new Société provided an incentive for composers in France.  Franck was the first of many composers who wrote chamber pieces for the Société, such as Saint-Saëns (a quartet, several sonatas, and Mélodies Persanes), d’Indy (a quartet and a quintet), Chausson (quartet), Debussy (quartet, piano pieces, and songs), Dukas (piano sonata), Magnard (quartet, trio, and violin sonatas), and many others.

In 1882 a gifted nineteen-year old organ and composition student won the Prix de Rome with a cantata entitled Edith.  Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937) was seen as a model student at the Conservatoire.  He was a gifted student in composition, conducting, and organ.  After Franck’s death in 1890, Pierne was named his successor at Sainte-Clotilde, and served in the position for eight years.  His pre-1900 chamber works were not signifcant, but his Violin Sonata, Op. 39 (1900) did present many advanced harmonic and technical achievements in the manner of Franck or Ravel.

Between 1874 and 1875, Saint-Saëns became more active in chamber music composition, completing four works.  The two works from 1874 were his Romance for horn and piano, Op. 36 and Romance for violin and piano, Op. 48.  Both of these were also issued in orchestral versions.  The first of two chamber works he completed in 1875, the year of Bizet’s death and Ravel’s birth, was the Quartet in B flat, Op. 41.  It is a more calmed atmosphere since his Sonata, completed just after the war, and is the most significant of the four pieces written at this time.  The other piece written in 1875 was the Allegro Appassionato for cello and piano, Op. 43.

A pupil of Saint-Saëns was Gabriel Fauré (1845-1924), who was his pupil from 1861-1865.  Fauré’s most significant contribution to chamber music came with his later pieces, such as the Second Violin Sonata (1917), but his contribution as a teacher and composer before 1900 cannot be overlooked.

Fauré did not attempt instrumental music until considerably later in his career as a composer.  Instead, he opted to concentrate on writing music for voice.  Though he had already been composing for ten years, Fauré’s first chamber work was completed in 1876 C when he was thirty one years old.  The Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano in A Major, Op. 13 was not understood by the average listener at the time of its first performance, but was hailed by Saint-Saëns as a victory over the German school.  This was the first of twelve chamber works written between 1876 and 1900, five of which were given their premier by the Société Nationale de Musique.

Immediately after his Sonata, Fauré began work on his Piano Quartet, Op. 15.  Completed in 1879, it is considered one of Fauré’s earliest masterpieces.  It was his first of two attempts at writing for piano and three stringed instruments.  The somewhat unusual combination is an indication that Fauré was looking to new combinations of instruments to achieve his desired sound.  This successful piece was followed in the same year by his Berceuse, Op. 16 for violin and piano.  It is easily one of Faure’s most popular works.  It is prominent for its striking melodic charm.  It quicky became a staple in the chamber repertory.

While Fauré was working on the above pieces, a new voice entered the chamber music scene.  Vincent d’Indy (1851-1931) completed his Piano Quartet, Op. 7 in 1878.  Though not a completely developed work, it did receive a performance that year, and allowed d’Indy to join the number of composers influenced by Franck who composed chamber music.  He wrote six more chamber works between then and 1900.  These works were given their premiers by such groups as La Trompette, the Société Nationale de Musique, and the Société des Instruments à Vent.

D’Indy decided by the age of eighteen that he wanted to pursue composition as a profession.  This was, however, interrupted by the 1870 war in which he served.  After his term of duty, he resumed his commitment to composition.  Through his friend Duparc, d’Indy arranged to meet with Franck in hopes of taking lessons.  D’Indy describes his first meeting with Franck, and, upon showing a movement from his Quartet, Franck proclaimed, ” . . .in fact, you really know nothing whatsoever.”  Soon thereafter, d’Indy began studying with Franck at the Conservatoire.

Though he was a follower of Franck, d’Indy was an ardent admirer of Wagner.  He was one of many composers who made excursions to Bayreuth to hear the music of Wagner.  It was during one of these trips to Bayreuth that Lekeu (to be discussed later) fainted after the prelude to Tristan, and Chabrier burst into tears before a performance of the same work because he had waited so long to hear it.[3]

D’Indy destroyed most of his early compositions once he began studying with Franck.  It can be assumed, however, that these works were immature and would not have contributed significantly to the composer’s importance.

In 1879, Franck wrote one of his most influential works, the Piano Quintet in F minor.  His first chamber work in over thirty years proved to be one of great mastery.  He introduced his modern cyclical style of composition, a system to which nearly all his students eventually adhered.

An eighteen year old composer made a modest debut in 1880.  Claude Debussy (1862-1918) displayed his first chamber work, Trio in G major for piano, violin, and cello.  Though is was an immature work, young Debussy attracted the attention of his teacher, Guiraud, by his progressive musical language.

Also in 1880 was the completion of Fauré’s Elégie for cello and piano, Op. 24.  It was first performed by the Société, and met with great success.  Faure was also to begin his Andante for flute and piano at this time, which was not completed for another seventeen years.  Not to be outdone by his student, Saint-Saëns completed a chamber work of his own that year: his Septet.  Written for La Trompette, this work is in an older style, containing a Preambule, a Minuet, an Andante, a Gavotte, and a Finale.  It was an attractive and well-received work.

The Société Nationale de Musique debuted the first chamber work of a budding young composer in 1881, Ernest Chausson (1855-1899).  Chausson’s Trio in G minor for piano, violin, and cello, Op. 3, was obviously inspired by Franck’s acclaimed Quintet, first performed a year prior.  Chausson adopted Franck’s idea of cyclical form, and other principles of cyclical composition.  This was a work of undeveloped talent, however.  His first mature chamber work C his Concert in D Major for piano, solo violin, and string quartet C did not come until ten years later.

The chamber music debut of yet another of Franck’s students came in 1882 with the Andante et Sérénade, Op. 7 by Gabriel Pierné (1863-1937).  He began studying with Franck at the Conservatoire at a young age, and eagerly adopted much of his teacher’s musical language.  Pierné’s first important chamber work, Pastorale variée dans le style ancien, Op. 30 however,id not come until 1894.

In 1886, d’Indy’s force in the Société became predominant.  He proposed that the Société should extend its scope to include ancient, classical, and foreign works.  Though this was approved  causing a bitter dispute, the music promoted by the Société remained largely French.  As a result of this rift, founding members Bussine and Saint-Saëns resigned.  Franck was then offered the office of President, which he declined.  He did, however, act as de facto President until d’Indy took over in 1890.

Aside from his activities in the Société, d’Indy was also one of three composers who wrote significant chamber works in 1886.  His Suite, Op. 24 (for trumpet, two flutes, and string quartet) was first performed by La Trompette.  It was only his second chamber work, eight years after the first.

d’Indy’s teacher, Franck, also completed his next-to-last chamber work in this year.  His Violin Sonata was written for two great performers of the time C Eugène Ysa­e and Madame Bordes-Pène.  This work employs all of the cyclical proceedures one expects in Franck’s work, with even more innovations in his development of variations.  It was an immediate success.

1886 was the year Fauré completed his Quartet in G minor, Op. 45 (dedicated to Hans von Bülow).  This is one of Fauré’s most celebrated chamber works, and many believe Debussy derived considerable inspiration from this piece when he wrote his quartet seven years later.

Franck took on a pupil in the Fall of 1889 who’s life is remembered as that of a young genius who died at a very early age.  Guillaume Lekeu (1870-1894) was the last of Franck’s long list of pupils.  Lekeu, like Franck, was a Belgian who moved to France with his family at the age of nine.  Along with music, he was well-versed in science and philosophy.  He only began studying harmony and theory nine years before his death.

It was through his lessons with Prix de Rome winner Gaston Vallin that Lekeu was introduced to Franck.  The two men met privately twice a week for several months.  During this time they became quite close.  These lessons lasted until only a few days before Franck’s death in 1890.  When Franck died in the Fall of 1890, Lekeu was devastated.  In a letter to Louis Kéfer, the director of the conservatory in Verviers, Lekeu wrote:

“I was completely bewildered; I passed four or five days a week smoking and watching the implacable rain pour down and telling myself how wise it would be to jump out of the window…  I plunged back into counterpoint, double chorus and fugue and that sort of thing now marches cahin-caha. . .”[4]

Lekeu’s contribution to chamber music was distinguished in respect to the amount of time he was actively composing.  Aside from an unpublished work he wrote before studying with Franck, Lekeu published two chamber works: his Violin Sonata (1892), and a Trio (1891).  Aside from these two works, he was working on two chamber pieces when he died which were later published:  the Cello Sonata (prepared for publication by d’Indy) and a Quartet (composed in 1893, and prepared for publication by d’Indy).

Lekeu was not alone in his remorse at the death of Cesar Franck.  Indeed, an entire generation of composers lost their leader, but his impact would remain and continue to expand.

1892 was a year that saw the deaths of two great composers, and the births of three.  Born were half of Les Six: Arthur Honnegger, Darius Milhaud, and Germaine Tailleferre.  Edouard Lalo and Ernest Guiraud died in this year.  This was also the year that Saint-Saëns produced two more chamber works.  His Trio in E minor, Op. 92, for piano, violin, and cello represent one of his greatest chamber works.  It is classical in form, but contains modern innovations within such a structure.  The other piece he composed in 1892 was the Chant saphique, Op. 91 for piano and cello.

French chamber music was gratified by Debussy’s mature chamber music debut, with a performance of his Quartet at a concert of the Société in 1893.  It was a major contribution to the medium.  Debussy’s teacher, Fauré, however, found himself in the middle of a generation gap.  Saint-Saëns, Fauré’s friend and teacher, warned him of the dangers of ADebussyism@ and other Alittle anarchists@ who were leading to a decline in the quality of French music.[5] Fauré chose to defend his pupil Debussy by insisting he had talent and vision.  Debussy’s quartet was the only mature chamber work he composed before 1900, but it has remained a staple of the medium from this period, and an influencing factor over modern chamber music for decades to come.

Other compositions from 1893 were Guy Ropartz’s first Quartet, and Charles Tournemire’s Sonata for violin and piano.  Tournemire (1870-1939) studied organ with Franck and Widor at the Conservatoire, and composition with d’Indy at the Schola.  His style was not in the tradition of Franck, and his greatest contribution to music was that written for the Catholic church after 1900.  1893 was also the year that Charles Gounod, one of the father figures of young French composers at this time, passed away.

Albéric Magnard (1865-1914) entered the chamber music arena in 1894 with his Quintet, Op. 8.  Skillfully written, this piece is an example of Magnard’s philosophy that absolute music is superior to programme music.  It was his only chamber work before 1900, but one that added to the number of quality chamber works being written in France at this time.  A student of Massenet and Dubois at the Conservatoire during the late 1880’s, and with d’Indy at the Schola until 1892, Magnard held an absolute reverence of Beethoven.  He especially admired Beethoven’s late quartets.

Besides Magnard’s quintet, there were several other significant works written in 1894.  Fauré introduced his Romance in A major, Op. 69, not one of his primary chamber works, but a skilled and respectable endeavor.  Franco-Italian composer Sylvio Lazzari (1860-1944), a student of Franck and Guiraud from the 1880’s debuted his Violin Sonata.  Louis Vierne (1870-1937), a student of Franck and Widor, wrote one of his earliest compositions, the Quatuor à cordes.  Though not as significant as his Violin Sonata (1908), it was one of the pieces that began the development of Vierne’s career.

Two prominent composers saw their fate in 1894.  Emmanuel Chabrier, though not a composer of chamber music, was a significant figure in France in the late nineteenth century.  He was a friend of d’Indy and Duparc, and composed many successful theatrical works that commanded much attention in France.  Guillaume Lekeu was just beginning to achieve recognition (some believed he would be the successor to Franck’s throne) when he succumbed to typhoid fever as a result of eating contaminated sherbet.  He was honored by such figures as Debussy, Dukas, Eugène Ysa­e, and Léon Vallas.  He left behind a total of sixty compositions written between the ages of seventeen and twenty-three.  The debate over his significance remains, but the consideration of his potential was never in question.

Florent Schmitt, a student of Dubois and Massenet, composed his first notable chamber work, the Chant du Soir, Op. 7 in 1895.  Another young composer completed his second chamber work in this year.  Tournemire wrote his Sonata for cello and piano.  Though not yet highly recognized, these works represented the trend of chamber composition that Franck and his school had begun, and that young composers were still following.

Six years after the death of Cesar Franck, a new educational institution emerged as an avenue open to young French musicians.  Founded by d’Indy, Charles Bordes, and Giulmont*, the Schola Cantorum was a sort of alternative to the Conservatoire.  The goals of the Schola, defined by d’Indy, were to not only to produce virtuosi or music teachers, but to provide an intellectual training of great latitude.  These lofty intentions coupled with the calliber of available instructors made the Schola an attractive option for many young musicians.

The formation of the Schola did not please all of France, however.  A rift had arisen between members of the Conservatoire and the Schola.  The Scholists rid themselves of any association of such composers as Fauré and Debussy.  This quarrel existed despite the fact that both sides were nationalists and contributed to the same goal of furthering new developments in French music.

In 1897, d’Indy wrote his first chamber work since the formation of the Schola Cantorum, his Quartet, Op. 45.  Written as he completed his opera Fervaal, this work was another step in d’Indy’s becoming a prominent composer in France by the turn of the century.  This was also the same time that Ernest Chausson was completing one of his final chamber works, the Piano Quartet in A major, Op. 30.  It has been claimed that this piece is an example of why Chausson should be called a “connecting link between Franck and Debussy.”[6] It does contain such devices such as pentatonicism and parallel fourths.  Formally, however, it remains classic, thus the link between the two mentioned composers.

Two young composers added in 1897 to the growing number of chamber works being composed in France at this time.  Tournemire completed his Suite for viola and piano, and Marcel Labey’s first notable chamber work, Piano Quartet.  Labey (1875-1968) was a student of d’Indy, and wrote music in the late Romantic style in the tradition of his teacher.  His important chamber music was written after 1900.  Labey was eventually named director of the Schola after d’Indy’s death in 1931.

By the last year of the 1800’s, French chamber music had become an internationally renown medium.  It was in this year that Chausson died in an unfortunate accident C the same day he was working on his Quartet, Op. 35.  Saint-Saëns and Tournemire completed quartets of their own in this year.  It also marked the year that Francis Poulenc was born.

[1] Cobbett, Cobbett’s Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music, v. 2, p. 199.

[2]Hervey, Saint-Saëns, p. 109.

[3] Grover, Ernest Chausson: The Man and His Music, p. 48-49.

[4]Sonneck, AGuillaume LekeuA in Musical Times, p. 117-118.

[5]Vuillermoz, Gabriel Fauré, p. 30.

[6]Grover, Ernest Chausson, p. 195.



The following is a list of French composer whose careers fell into the years discussed in this paper.  Many were not more than amateur composers.  To attempt to remain as inclusive as possible, non-French composers who lived in France and followed the traditions there are also included.

Alard, Delphin (1815-1888)
Alary, Georges (1850-1928)
Alquier, Maurice (1867-1914)
Bachelet, Alfred (1864-1944)
Battanchon, Félix (1814-1893)
Bernard, Emile (1845-1902)
Bertelin, Albert (1872-1951)
Blanc, Adolphe (1828-1885)
Boellmann, Léon (1862-1897)
de Boisdeffre, René (1838-1906)
Bordes, Charles (1863-1909)
Bourgault-Ducoudray, Louis-Albert (1840-1910)
Brancour, René (1862-1948)
Bruneau, Alfred (1857-1934)
Capet, Lucien (1873-1928)
Casadesus, Francis (1870-1954)
de Castera, René (1873-1955)
Castillon, Alexis (1838-1873)
Chaminade, Cécile (1861-1944)
Chapuis, Auguste (1858-1933)
Chaumet, William (1842-1903)
Chausson, Ernest (1855-1899)
Chevillard, Camille (1859-1923)
Coindreau, Pierre (1867-1924)
Dallier, Henri (1849-1934)
Dancla, Charles (1817-1907)
Debussy, Claude (1862-1918)
Deldevez, Ernest (1817-1897)
Delune, Louis (1876-1940)
Destenay, Edouard (1850-1924)
Diemer, Louis (1843-1919)
Dubois, Théodore (1837-1924)
Ducasse, Roger (1873-1954)
Dukas, Paul (1865-1935)
Dullaurens, André (1873-1932)
Dumas, Louis (1877-1952)
Duparc, Henri (1848-1933)
Dupin, Paul (1865-1949)
Durand, Auguste (1830-1909)
Duvernoy, Alphonse (1842-1907)
Emmanuel, Maurice (1862-1938)
Erb, Marie-Joseph (1858-1944)
Farrenc, Louise (1804-1875)
Fauré, Gabriel (1845-1924)
Feverier, Henri (1876-1957)
Flegier, Ange (1846-1927)
Fleuret, Daniel (1869-1915)
Franchomme, Auguste (1808-1884)
Franck, César (1822-1890)
Ganaye, Jean-Baptiste (1870-1946)
Ganne, Louis (1862-1923)
Gastinel, Léon (1823-1906)
Gedalge, André (1856-1926)
Georges, Alexandre (1850-1938)
Gigout, Eugène (1844-1925)
Godard, Benjamin (1849-1895)
Gouffe, Achille (1804-1874)
Gounod, Charles (1818-1893)
Gouvy, Théodore (1819-1898)
de Grandval, Marie-Félicie (1830-1907)
Guiraud, Ernest (1837-1892)
Hahn, Reynaldo (1875-1947)
d’Hartcourt, Eugène (1861-1918)
Heritte-Viardot, Louise (1841-1918)
Hermant, Pierre (1869-1928)
Hillemacher, Paul (1852-1933)
Hillemacher, Lucien (1860-1909)
Hue, Georges (1858-1948)
Hure, Jean (1877-1930)
d’Indy, Vincent (1851-1931)
Jaell, Marie (1846-1925)
de Joncieres, Victorin (1839-1903)
Koechlin, Charles (1867-1950)
Kufferath, Maurice (1852-1919)
Labey, Marcel (1875-1968)
Lacombe, Louis (1818-1884)
Lacombe, Paul (1838-1927)
Lacroix, Eugène (1858-1950)
Ladmirault, Paul (1877-1944)
Lalliet, Théophile (1837-1892)
Lalo, Edouard (1823-1892)
Lambert, Lucien (1858-1945)
Laparra, Raoul (1876-1943)
Laurens, Edmond (1852-1925)
Lazzari, Sylvio (1860-1944)
Le Borne, Fernand (1862-1929)
Lebouc, Charles (1822-1894)
Leduc, Alphonse (1804-1892)
Lefbvre, Charles (1843-1917)
Lekeu, Guillaume (1870-1894)
Lenepveu, Charles (1840-1910)
Lenormand, René (1846-1932)
Leroux, Xavier (1863-1919)
Levade, Charles (1869-1948)
Luigini, Alexandre (1850-1906)
Magnard, Albért (1865-1914)
Malherbe, Edmond (1870-1963)
Marechal, Henri (1842-1924)
Marteau, Henri (1874-1934)
Massenet, Jules (1842-1912)
Mathias, François-Xavier (1871-1939)
Mathias, Georges (1826-1900)
Membree, Edmond (1820-1882)
Messager, André (1853-1929)
Morel, Auguste (1809-1891)
Mouquet, Jules (1867-1946)
d’Ollone, Max (1875-1959)
Paladilhe, Emile (1844-1926)
Perilhou, A. (1845-1936)
Pessard, Emile (1843-1917)
Pfeiffer, Georges (1835-1908)
Pierne, Gabriel (1863-1937)
Pierne, Paul (1874-1952)
Planchet, Dominique Charles (1857-1946)
Poisot, Charles (1822-1904)
Poueigh, Jean (1876-1958)
Quef, Charles (1873-1931)
Quittard, Henri (1864-1919)
Rabaud, Henri (1873-1949)
Ratez, Emile (1851-1934)
Ravel, Maurice (1875-1937)
Reber, Henri (1807-1880)
Renie, Henriette (1875-1936)
Reuchsel, Amédée (1875-1931)
Rey, Jean-Etienne (1832-1902)
Rey-Andrieu, Etienne (1875-1936)
Ropartz, Guy (1864-1955)
Rousseau, Samuel (1853-1904)
Roussel, Albert (1869-1937)
Sachs, Léo (1868-1930)
Saint-Saëns, Camille (1835-1921)
Salmon, Joseph (1864-1943)
Salomon, Hector (1838-1906)
Salvayre, G. (1847-1916)
Samazeuilh, Gustave (1877-1967)
Sarreau, Gaston (1850-1935)
Satie, Erik (1866-1925)
Sauvrezis, Alice (1866-1946)
Sauzay, Eugène (1807-1901)
Savard, Augustin (1861-1942)
Schmitt, Florent (1870-1958)
Serieyx, Auguste (1865-1949)
de Severac J.M. Déodat (1873-1921)
Taffanel, Paul (1844-1908)
Taudou, Antonin (1846-1925)
Thomé, Francis (1850-1909)
Tiersot, Julien (1857-1936)
Tingry, Céleste (1819-1896)
de la Tombelle, Fernand (1854-1928)
Tournemire, Charles (1870-1939)
Vaucorbeil, Auguste (1821-1884)
Viardot, Paul (1857-1941)
Vierne, Louis (1870-1937)
Vinee, Anselme (1841-1921)
de Wailly, Paul (1856-1933)
Weckerlin, Jean-Baptiste (1821-1910)
Widor, Charles-Marie (1845-1937)
Weirnsberger, Jules (1857-1925)
Witkowsky, Georges (1867-1943)
Woollett, Henry (1864-1936)

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